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Energy – Hydroelectric

Using local resources to meet energy needs is among Firmametal’s top priorities. Firmametal is engaged in ongoing R&D work to minimize Turkey’s foreign dependence in energy. When it comes to harnessing local resources for energy, Eco-Friendly Hydroelectric Power Plants (HPP) established on watercourses are of primary importance.

Turkey currently has a total of 623 licensed HPPs with 597 already in operation and 26 under construction. There is also the potential for 1,200 more eco-friendly HPPs on our watercourses.

The project stages for establishing HPPs can be broadly defined as follows: determining the watercourse characteristics, selecting an appropriate type of turbine, designing the turbine and related components (projects) and carrying out bespoke project construction.

Project design of HPP electro-mechanical parts and the production of the main turbine wheel unit and accessories cannot be completed using 100% local resources.

However, the casting method employed by Firmametal makes it possible to plan projects based on local manufacturing of the electro-mechanical parts of HPPs and, in particular, 100% local production of the turbine wheels.


How is a Cast Turbine Wheel Produced?

Turbine wheels and guide blades are considered as the core elements of HPPs and their production at Firmametal is as follows:

  • Design and technical production drawings are obtained from the overseas ecosystem,
  • Casting is performed with induction furnaces using conventional methods,
  • Application of special refining techniques (targeting %C: 0.03).
  • An appropriate heat treatment is determined taking into account the characteristics of the water in which the turbine wheel is to be used.
  • The wheel is then processed rapidly on 5-axis benches and finally balanced in preparation for use.





Francis turbines are the most commonly used type of hydro turbine in the world. Around 60% of the global hydroelectric capacity is provided through Francis turbines. Used particularly in large-scale hydroelectric plants, they are versatile turbines that can be used in various hydraulic heads and water flow rates. Francis turbines can operate with heads of up to 600 meters and generate up to 500 MW power.




Pelton turbines harness the kinetic energy of water and visually resemble a traditional water wheel. Firmametal can position them vertically or horizontally. Usually two jets are preferred for horizontal positioning and four or more can be used in vertical positioning. In horizontal positioning, two rotors rather than one can be placed on the same shaft that drives a single generator.




Kaplan turbines provide the highest efficiency across a broad configuration range. Kaplan turbines are mostly used in the low-head class with large volumes of water. The adjustability of the guide vanes and the wheel blades means that varying water flow rate can be used in the most appropriate way.